During the Middle Ages, most of Europe was dominated by religious beliefs and it was through this frame of mind that people explained the world around them. After the Crusaders invaded Moorish Spain, they discovered an advanced civilization]] and thousands of years of knowledge. After spending 150 years translating thousands of texts, the Crusaders returned to northern Europe with vast amounts of knowledge, including the works of the Ancient Greek philosophers who had pioneered logical thinking. Thus, the Dark Ages ended as secular knowledge and logical thinking took precedence over religious superstition. Europe overruns Moorish Spain, discovering libraries, universities, optics, mechanics, and natural philosophy, as well as table manners and dessert. The rediscovery of classical knowledge leads to the founding of universities and the overthrow of Augustinian by Aritstotelian beliefs.
Part One The Way We Are: It Started with the Greeks