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Monday, September 19, 2022

News and Weather Briefing for Monday, September 19, 2022

Here is an index to assist you in moving from section to section within the article.

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Hazards and Tropical Weather
Macon Calendar
Local and StateNews
The Passing of Queen Elizabeth II
Russo-UKrainian War Updates
National News Roundup
COVID-19 News and Updates
Science and Technology
Russo-Ukrainian War Videos (mostly long form)
On This Day
Support Macon Media


Dry weather continues into midweek as a dome of high pressure expands across the Southeast. This will also allow for well above normal temperatures. A cold front tracks across the area Thursday and could have enough moisture to squeeze out a few showers across the forecast area. Expect cooler temperatures next weekend as Canadian high pressure builds in behind the departing front.


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Local Weather

General Forecast Through Wednesday Night

Franklin Area


Widespread dense fog, mainly between 7am and 9am. Otherwise, cloudy through midmorning, then gradual clearing, with highs in the mid 80s. Calm winds.


Patchy fog after midnight. Otherwise, increasing clouds, with lows around 60. Calm winds.


Areas of fog before 9am. Otherwise, sunny, with highs in the mid-to-upper 80s. Light winds out of the northwest.

Tuesday Night

Patchy fog after midnight. Otherwise, mostly clear, with lows around 60. Calm winds.


Sunny, with highs near 90.

Wednesday Night

Mostly clear, with lows in the low-to-mid 60s.

Highlands Plateau


Widespread fog, mainly before midmorning. Otherwise, sunny, with highs in the mid 70s. Calm winds.


Widespread fog, mainly after 5am. Otherwise, mostly clear, with lows in the mid-to-upper 50s. Calm winds in the morning increasing to come out of the northwest around 5 mph after midnight.


Widespread fog, mainly before 8am. Otherwise, sunny, with highs near 80. Winds out of the northwest 3 to 6 mph.

Tuesday Night

Mostly clear, with lows in the upper 50s. Light winds out of the north.


Sunny, with highs near 80.

Wednesday Night

Clear, with lows around 60.

Otto and South Central Macon County


Widespread fog, mainly before 10am or so. Otherwise, cloudy through midmorning, then gradual clearing, with highs in the mid 80s. Calm winds.


Patchy fog after 2am. Otherwise, mostly clear, with lows in the lower 60s. Calm winds.


Areas of fog before 9am. Otherwise, sunny, with highs in the mid-to-upper 80s. Light winds out of the northwest.

Tuesday Night

Mostly clear, with lows around 60. Calm winds.


Sunny, with highs near 90.

Wednesday Night

Clear, with lows in the low-to-mid 60s.

Nantahala Area


Widespread fog, mainly before 10am. Otherwise, sunny, with highs near 80. Calm winds.


Increasing clouds, with lows in the lower 60s. Calm winds.


Sunny, with highs in the lower 80s. Calm winds in the morning increasing to come out of the northwest around 5 mph in the afternoon.

Tuesday Night

Mostly clear, with lows around 60. Calm winds.


Sunny, with highs in the mid 80s.

Wednesday Night

Clear, with lows in the low-to-mid 60s.

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Hazards and Tropical Weather

Hazardous weather is not expected fortoday or tonight,


Tropical Weather Outlook
NWS National Hurricane Center Miami FL
200 AM EDT Mon Sep 19 2022

For the North Atlantic...Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico:

Active Systems:
The National Hurricane Center is issuing advisories on Hurricane Fiona, located between Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic.

1. Central Subtropical Atlantic:
Satellite wind data from earlier tonight indicated an area of low pressure has formed over the central subtropical Atlantic, and it is producing disorganized showers and thunderstorms. There is a short window for this system to develop further over the next day or two before environmental conditions become less favorable later this week. The system should move generally northward or northeastward while remaining over the open central subtropical Atlantic.

* Formation chance through 48 hours...low...20 percent.
* Formation chance through 5 days...low...20 percent.


Hurricane Fiona Discussion Number 19
NWS National Hurricane Center Miami FL AL072022
1100 PM AST Sun Sep 18 2022

Radar imagery and recent fixes from an Air Force Reserve Hurricane Hunter aircraft show that Fiona has jogged westward over the Mona Passage, in between Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic this evening. Radar, microwave imagery, and observations from the aircraft indicate that the eye has become smaller, with the radius of maximum winds decreasing to 10-15 n mi. There has been some warming of the clouds tops in the band just outside the CDO, but the conventional satellite presentation has not changed much since late this afternoon. The aircraft has measured a peak 700-mb flight- level wind of 75 kt, and SFMR winds of around 70 kt. A dropwindsonde in the northwestern eyewall measured a mean wind of 89 kt in the lowest 150 m of the profile, which supports the 75 kt initial intensity. The aircraft just reported a minimum pressure of 982 mb on it latest pass through the center just a short time ago.

As mentioned above, Fiona has been moving more westward this evening, but the longer-term motion estimate is 300/9 kt. With this westward jog, the center is likely to make landfall in the eastern portion of the Dominican Republic overnight, and the early portion of the track forecast has been adjusted accordingly. The dynamical model guidance insists that a northwestward motion should begin soon, and the models are in good agreement that Fiona will move around the western periphery of a subtropical ridge over the next several days. Later in the forecast period, Fiona is forecast to accelerate northeastward, and north-northeastward ahead of a trough that is expected to move across the northeastern United States by the end of the week. The official forecast is near the center of the guidance envelope, but is slightly slower than the previous forecast at days 4 and 5 to be closer to the latest consensus aids.

Fiona could strengthen slightly within the next few hours before it reaches the coast of the Dominican Republic overnight. After that time, some weakening could occur while the center remains near eastern Hispaniola. Once Fiona moves over the Atlantic waters north of the Dominican Republic, the hurricane will be over warm water and in fairly moist environment. Although there is likely to be some moderate shear over the hurricane, nearly all of the intensity models suggest the cyclone will strengthen, and the official forecast again calls for Fiona to become a major hurricane in a couple of days. The NHC intensity forecast is close to the IVCN intensity aid, and is similar to the previous wind speed forecast.

Based on Fiona's latest forecast track, the government of the Bahamas has issued a Hurricane Warning for the Turks and Caicos Islands.

Key Messages:

1. Hurricane conditions are expected to begin in portions of the warning area in the Dominican Republic within the next few hours. Tropical storm conditions will continue to spread over portions of the Dominican Republic within the warning area through Monday.

2. Heavy rains from Fiona will continue across Puerto Rico overnight tonight and spread over the Dominican Republic through Monday. These rains will continue to produce life-threatening and catastrophic flash and urban flooding across Puerto Rico and portions of the eastern Dominican Republic, along with mudslides and landslides in areas of higher terrain.

3. Fiona is forecast to continue to strengthen after moving away from Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic. Hurricane conditions are expected in portions of the Turks and Caicos Islands on Tuesday, and tropical storm conditions are expected in the southeastern Bahamas by late Monday or early Tuesday.


INIT 19/0300Z 18.0N 68.1W 75 KT 85 MPH
12H 19/1200Z 19.0N 69.1W 80 KT 90 MPH
24H 20/0000Z 20.4N 70.0W 90 KT 105 MPH
36H 20/1200Z 21.9N 70.8W 95 KT 110 MPH
48H 21/0000Z 23.3N 71.1W 100 KT 115 MPH
60H 21/1200Z 24.7N 71.1W 105 KT 120 MPH
72H 22/0000Z 26.4N 70.5W 110 KT 125 MPH
96H 23/0000Z 31.2N 67.4W 110 KT 125 MPH
120H 24/0000Z 40.3N 59.8W 95 KT 110 MPH

What's Up in the Tropics with Mark Sudduth - Fiona Update - September 18, 2022


Tropical Tidbits is a website run by Macon Media's favorite no-nonsense tropical forecaster, Levi Cowan. He does not post material just to get clicks or to sensationalize the storms he covers to "make them more exciting." He is reliable and sober, unlike The Weather Channel crowd of Drama Queen Meteorologists.

Levi typically posts videos late in the afternoon or early before midnight on Youtube. [Youtube Channel]

[Sat evening / Sept 17] Fiona becoming Better Organized as it Approaches Puerto Rico

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24 Hour Smoke Forecast

A smoke fieldmap was not provided for today. -->

Air quality is in the extreme upper range of green for most of the county, with the ridges and other higher elevations today being in the extreme upper range of green.

Fire and Smoke Map

Local Air Monitor


Pollen levels are expected to be in the medium-high range 7.9 out of 12) today with Ragweed, Chenopods, and Grasses being the main culprits. Tomorrow is expected to be in the medium-high range (8.0 out of 12).

Record Weather Events for September 19th

Record weather events for this date in Macon County

Highest Temperature 96°F in Highlands in 1925
Lowest Temperature 29°F in Highlands in 1903
Greatest Rainfall 2.12 inches in at the Coweeta Experimental Station in 1968

Highest Temperature 98°F in Franklin on 09-04-1975
Lowest Temperature 27°F in Franklin on 09-30-1967
Greatest Rainfall 11.87 inches in Highlands on 09-27-1964
Greatest Snowfall no measurable snowfall has been recorded since records started being kept in 1873

Weather Extremes for North Carolina for the month of September Data available from 1870 to 2018

Highest Temperature 108°F Belhaven, Beaufort County 09-25-1921
Lowest Temperature 23°F Marion, McDowell County 09-28-2000
Greatest One-Day Rainfall 21.00 in Wilmington, New Hanover County 09-17-2018

Monthly Averages

Warmest Weather Station 75.4°F Morehead City, Carteret County
Coldest Weather Station 55.0°F Mount Mitchell, Yancey County
Wettest Weather Station 8.93 in Southport, Brunswick County
Driest Weather Station 2.94 in Marshall, Madison County

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Macon Calendar
(send your event to

No events submitted

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Local and State News

At 6:12am on Sunday, September 18, 2022, the entrance sign to the new Angel Medical Center is revealed as the first patient is transferred from the old hospital to the new takes place. The new hospital is located at 124 Center Court across from Bojangles off US-441.
• The enigma of Mark Robinson: How NC's outspoken lieutenant governor is climbing the GOP ladder [WRAL-TV (Raleigh, NC)]

• NC Medicaid expansion compromise could be imminent [Raleigh News and Observer]

• NC health officials release action plan to combat suicide amid mental health crisis [WLOS-TV (Asheville, NC)]

• Mission Health opens new Angel Medical Center in Franklin [Blue Ridge Public Radio]

• Bivalves serve as nature’s aquatic cleaning crews [Sylva Herald and Ruralite]

• Macon County Board of Commissioners - September 2022 Regular Meeting [Macon Media]

• Franklin Town Council - September 2022 Regular Meeting [Macon Media]

• Franklin Town Council - Special Called Meeting for August 30, 2022 [Macon Media]

State Budget Details

• NC Budget Table of Contents [Google Drive (PDF)]

• NC House Bill 103: 2022 Appropriations Act [Google Drive (PDF)]

• Joint Conference Committee Report on the Current Operations Appropriations Act of 2022 [Google Drive (PDF)]

• House Bill 103 Information and Voting History [NC General Assembly Website]

• Raises for state employees, preparations for recession, in proposed state budget [WRAL-TV (Raleigh, NC)]

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Special Section: The Death of Queen Elizabeth II
(sharing of a particular source is not an endorsement)
(This is a special section to allow readers to discover original documentation and read/view news coverage of The Passing of Queen Elizabeth II)

Contuning live coverage of the events in the United Kingdom over the next few days can be watched on the Sky News Youtube Channel. [LINK]

Live Video: The State Funeral Procession of Her Majesty The Queen | The Royal Family Channel

Queen Elizabeth II: The State Funeral | ITV News

Obituary: The life of Queen Elizabeth II | Sky News

• Live Coverage: Nation pauses for Queen Elizabeth II's final farewell [BBC News]

• Sky News Live Blog [BBC News]

LIVE AT 6AM: The State Funeral of Her Majesty The Queen | The Royal Family Channel

• The Queen’s funeral: the order of service in full [The Times]

World leaders gather to honor the queen l WNT | ABC News

• Queen’s funeral: state procession will see Elizabeth II remembered in Westminster Abbey service – latest updates [The Guardian]

• World gathers to honour Queen Elizabeth's life of selfless service [The Telegraph]

Why Most U.K Money Will Still Feature Queen Elizabeth II for Years to Come | WSJ

British royals faces scrutiny over the Queen's funeral cost | Al Jazeera

• A Welsh Village Embraces Its Bond With the Queen [New York Times]

Queen Rania of Jordan says Elizabeth II was 'the Queen of the world' | ITV News

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Special Section: Russo-Ukrainian War Updates
(sharing of a particular source is not an endorsement)
(Longer videos are in the Russo-Ukraine Videos section)

• Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, September 18 [Institute for the Study of War] [PDF for September 18th]

Timothy Snyder: The Making of Modern Ukraine. Class 4: Before Europe | Yale Courses

• Russia-Ukraine war: List of key events, day 207 [Al Jazeera]

• Ukraine says some bodies recovered at newly discovered mass burial site show signs of torture [CBC News]

Early reports from liberated Izyum | Ukraine: The Latest Podcast | The Telegraph

JOMINI OF THE WEST MAP (UTVD Operational Update: ZSU Counter Offensive in Kharkiv, 10-12 Sep 22.)

• Russia-Ukraine updates: Top US general says war 'not going well' for Moscow [DW News]

• Vladimir Putin’s Energy War With Europe Seems to Falter [WSJ Article with Playable Video] [WSJ Unlocked Article]

• Zelenskyy promises no let up in counter-offensive against Russia [Al Jazeera]

• UN chief Antonio Guterres: ‘I hope the ICC can investigate Izium’ [France 24]

• Russian retreat in Ukraine leaves Putin under pressure at home [NBC News via Yahoo! News]

News from Russian or pro-Russian outlets or Video About the Russian Perspective

• US to back Ukraine ‘as long as it takes’ – Biden [Russia Today]

• Putin answers questions about special operation in Ukraine [Pravda ]

• Weapons supplies to Ukraine make West accomplice of Kiev’s crimes - Russian diplomat [TASS Russian News Agency]

Sep 7, 2022 | Eastern Economic Forum plenary session | kremlin

The Ukraine War From Russia's Perspective

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National and World News Roundup

President Joe Biden: The 2022 60 Minutes Interview | CBS News

• Biden Calls Covid-19 Pandemic ‘Over,’ Says U.S. Troops Could Defend Taiwan [Wall Street Journal]

• Hurricane Fiona Knocks Out Power in Puerto Rico as Heavy Rains Continue [New York Times]

• Major quake strikes off Taiwan; 2 trapped in building collapse [Al Jazeera]

• Pelosi condemns Azerbaijan's attacks on Armenia [Reuters]

• Phony document riddled with spelling and syntax errors mysteriously appeared on Mar-a-Lago court docket [Market Watch]

Millions in Japan told to evacuate from Typhoon Nanmadol | Al Jazeera

Global National: Sept. 18, 2022 | King Charles III delivers statement ahead of queen’s funeral

Nightly News Full Broadcast (September 18th)

PBS NewsHour full episode, September 18, 2022

• Yes, the Great Books Make Us Better People [New York Times]

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COVID-19 News and Updates

Here is a section on COVID-19. It includes local, regional, state, national, and global items.

COVID-19 Numbers for Macon County:

• WHO Coronavirus (COVID-19) Dashboard [World Health Organization]

Globally, as of 6:35pm CEST, 16 September 2022, there have been 608,328,548 confirmed cases of COVID-19, including 6,501,469 deaths, reported to WHO. As of 13 September 2022, a total of 12,613,484,608 vaccine

In United States of America, from 3 January 2020 to 6:35pm CEST, 16 September 2022, there have been 94,237,260 confirmed cases of COVID-19 with 1,041,323 deaths, reported to WHO. As of 2 September 2022, a total of 601,804,302 vaccine doses have been administered.

What Sewage Can Tell Us About Covid, Monkeypox and Polio Virus Outbreaks | WSJ

• SARS-CoV-2 in immunocompromised individuals [Cell: Immunity]

• COVID is still killing hundreds a day, even as society begins to move on [Los Angeles Times]

• The Long Haul – Inside one neurologist’s quest to solve the mystery of COVID’s most puzzling complication [Chicago Magazine]

• Memory problems during the pandemic? It’s just your brain trying to distinguish one day from the next [The Conversation]

• Association of COVID-19 with New-Onset Alzheimer’s Disease [IOS Press (PDF)]

• TWiV 936: Clinical update with Dr. Daniel Griffin [Microbe TV]

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Science and Technology News Roundup

• Electric Vehicles Took Off. Car Makers Weren’t Ready [Wall Street Journal]

• Market downturn sparks longest US tech IPO drought in over 20 years [Financial Times]

• Bitcoin once again slips below $20,000 [Reuters]

• Energy-Generating 'Artificial Blowhole' Completes 1-Year Test [CNET]

• TikTok's search engine repeatedly delivers misinformation to its majority-young user base, report says [CNN]

Podcasts and Long Form Videos (History, Culture, Science, Space, Technology and Current Events)
Anything covering educational, entertainment, history, current events, and technology topics

Launch of Starlink Group 4-34 (54 satellites) and 6th Recovery of Booster B1067 | SpaceX

This Week in Linux 214 | Linux Plumbers Conference, Fedora, Kdenlive Fundraiser, Linux Malware and more Linux news!

Leo Laporte - The Tech Guy: 1927 | TWIT-TV

Up close and personal with Firefly's Alpha rocket! | Everyday Astronaut

First Ever Brown Dwarf Violently Losing Atmosphere For Reasons Unknown | Antov Petrov

Ray Kurzweil: Singularity, Superintelligence, and Immortality | Lex Fridman Podcast #321

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Russo-Ukrainian War Videos (mostly long form)

--> Biden warns Russia against using chemical or nuclear weapons in Ukraine | Al Jazeera

Discoveries in newly liberated areas of eastern Ukraine | ABC World News Tonight

How has Russia responded to the mass grave in Ukraine? | DW News

UN chief Antonio Guterres: ‘I hope the ICC can investigate Izium’ | FRANCE 24 English

Russia-Ukraine War: Fears of nuclear war emerge | Latest International News | WION

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On This Day

September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar; 103 days remain until the end of the year.

Historical Events

Historical Events

(Please note that the Wikipedia articles often contain a bibliography and links to where you can learn more about a historical event)

85 – Nerva, suspected of complicity of the death of Domitian, is declared emperor by Senate. The Senate then annuls laws passed by Domitian and orders his statues to be destroyed.

634 – Siege of Damascus: The Rashidun Arabs under Khalid ibn al-Walid capture Damascus from the Byzantine Empire.

1356 – Battle of Poitiers: An English army under the command of Edward, the Black Prince defeats a French army and captures King John II.

1410 – End of the Siege of Marienburg: The State of the Teutonic Order repulses the joint Polish—Lithuanian forces.

1676 – Jamestown is burned to the ground by the forces of Nathaniel Bacon during Bacon's Rebellion.

1777 – American Revolutionary War: British forces win a tactically expensive victory over the Continental Army in the First Battle of Saratoga.

1778 – The Continental Congress passes the first United States federal budget.

1796 – George Washington's Farewell Address is printed across America as an open letter to the public.

1799 – French Revolutionary Wars: French-Dutch victory against the Russians and British in the Battle of Bergen.

1846 – Two French shepherd children, Mélanie Calvat and Maximin Giraud, experience a Marian apparition on a mountaintop near La Salette, France, now known as Our Lady of La Salette.

1852 – Annibale de Gasparis discovers the asteroid Massalia from the north dome of the Astronomical Observatory of Capodimonte.

1862 – American Civil War: Union troops under William Rosecrans defeat a Confederate force commanded by Sterling Price.

1863 – American Civil War: The first day of the Battle of Chickamauga, in northwestern Georgia, the bloodiest two-day battle of the conflict, and the only significant Confederate victory in the war's Western Theater.

1864 – American Civil War: Union troops under Philip Sheridan defeat a Confederate force commanded by Jubal Early. With over 50,000 troops engaged, it was the largest battle fought in the Shenandoah Valley.

1868 – La Gloriosa begins in Spain.

1870 – Franco-Prussian War: The siege of Paris begins. The city held out for over four months before surrendering.

1893 – In New Zealand, the Electoral Act of 1893 is consented to by the governor, giving all women in New Zealand the right to vote.

1916 – World War I: During the East African Campaign, colonial forces of the Belgian Congo (Force Publique) under the command of Charles Tombeur capture the town of Tabora after heavy fighting.

1939 – World War II: The Battle of Kępa Oksywska concludes, with Polish losses reaching roughly 14% of all the forces engaged.

1940 – World War II: Witold Pilecki is voluntarily captured and sent to Auschwitz concentration camp to gather and smuggle out information for the resistance movement.

1944 – World War II: The Battle of Hürtgen Forest begins. It will become the longest individual battle that the U.S. Army has ever fought.

1944 – World War II: The Moscow Armistice between Finland and the Soviet Union is signed, which officially ended the Continuation War.

1946 – The Council of Europe is founded following a speech by Winston Churchill at the University of Zurich.

1950 – Korean War: An attack by North Korean forces was repelled at the Battle of Nam River.

1957 – Plumbbob Rainier becomes the first nuclear explosion to be entirely contained underground, producing no fallout.

1970 – Michael Eavis hosts the first Glastonbury Festival.

1970 – Kostas Georgakis, a Greek student of geology, sets himself ablaze in Matteotti Square in Genoa, Italy, as a protest against the dictatorial regime of Georgios Papadopoulos.

1976 – Turkish Airlines Flight 452 hits the Taurus Mountains, outskirt of Karatepe, Turkey, killing all 154 passengers and crew.

1976 – Two Imperial Iranian Air Force F-4 Phantom II jets fly out to investigate an unidentified flying object, when both independently lose instrumentation and communications as they approach, only to have them restored upon withdrawal.

1978 – The Solomon Islands join the United Nations.

1982 – Scott Fahlman posts the first documented emoticons :-) and :-( on the Carnegie Mellon University bulletin board system.

1983 – Saint Kitts and Nevis gains its independence.

1985 – A strong earthquake kills thousands and destroys about 400 buildings in Mexico City.

1985 – Tipper Gore and other political wives form the Parents Music Resource Center as Frank Zappa, John Denver, and other musicians testify at U.S. Congressional hearings on obscenity in rock music.

1989 – A bomb destroys UTA Flight 772 in mid-air above the Tùnùrù Desert, Niger, killing all 170 passengers and crew.

1991 – Ötzi the Iceman is discovered in the Alps on the border between Italy and Austria.

1995 – The Washington Post and The New York Times publish the Unabomber manifesto.

1997 – The Guelb El-Kebir massacre in Algeria kills 53 people.

2006 – The Thai army stages a coup. The Constitution is revoked and martial law is declared.

2010 – The leaking oil well in the Deepwater Horizon oil spill is sealed.

2011 – Mariano Rivera of the New York Yankees surpasses Trevor Hoffman to become Major League Baseball's all-time saves leader with 602.

2016 – In the wake of a manhunt, the suspect in a series of bombings in New York and New Jersey is apprehended after a shootout with police.

2017 – The 2017 Puebla earthquake strikes Mexico, causing 370 deaths and over 6,000 injuries, as well as extensive damage.

2019 – A drone strike by the United States kills 30 civilian farmers in Afghanistan.

2021 – The Cumbre Vieja volcano, on the island of La Palma in the Canary Islands, erupts. The eruption lasts for almost three months, ending on December 13.

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Published at 3:30am on Monday, September 19, 2022
Author: Bobby Coggins

Resources used to compile the information in this article include, but are not limited to the following websites or books:,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, This Day in North Carolina History, World War II Day By Day, The Holocaust Encyclopedia, The Timetables of History, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, The World History and Book of Facts (multiple years), On This Day In History: Over 4,000 facts, The NASA Archives. 60 Years in Space, This Day in North Carolina History, The Smithsonian History of Space Exploration: From the Ancient World to the Extraterrestrial Future, Spaceflight, 2nd Edition: The Complete Story from Sputnik to Curiousity, The Story of Civilization (11 volumes), The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, American History, Volume 1: 1492-1877, American History, Volume 2: 1877 - Present, A Complete Chronolgy of the Second World War. Weather and Almanac data and information sources: Sources (except where otherwise credited):, Ian Webster's Github, National Centers for Environmental Prediction, The National Weather Service, National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration, National Hurricane Center, Penn State University Electronic Wall Map, The State Climate Office of North Carolina, Storm Prediction Center, U.S. Naval Observatory, University of Utah Department of Atmospheric Sciences, and the Weather Prediction Center. Back to Top